As mentioned in What Does a Google URL mean? Part I, every query we ask Google to run is represented with a URL that points to a results page, these URL’s are not static, but dynamic links which are continually updated and therefore provide real time results.
To fully maximize the use of our Boolean operators and Google queries we must understand the URL Syntax Google uses. Let’s start with the first part of the URL, the location of Google’s search script:
As you can see if you follow the above link you are taken to a blank Google search page. This blank Google search page can be likened to a “?” that we use in everyday language; it is from this point we can delve deeper into the World Wide Web.
Now we are ready to question or query Google we must provide a set of Parameters which instruct the search script, basically tell it what to do and conduct the search we want. Parameters are separated by the ampersand (&) and consist of a variable followed by an equal sign (=) which is followed by the value that the variable should be set to:
*where a and b are both values
This is the part of the post I have been dreading and where all you techies and geeks will shoot me down! If you look at the URL of any Google search you have conducted you will probably notice the use of special characters such as the percentage sign (%) and numbers this is hexadecimal you can read more about Hexidecimal, base 16 or Hex at Wikipedia Lucky enough for us non techies most browsers support a auto correcting feature so we don’t need to worry about all that geeky Hex coding!
I hope you are still with me on this, the end is insight! So why is all this relevant? Generally our base or starting URL will come from a search submitted into the Google Web interface using our Boolean operators such as AND, NOT & OR and commands such as site: and link: by looking at the Google URL we are then able to add parameters, change values of parameters, modify and delete parameters and resubmit the search by pressing enter. Parameters can be added to the base URL in any order.
Here is a list of some of Google’s search parameters I find useful:
q or as_q A search query
as_eq A search term Terms will be excluded from the search
start 0 to max number of hits Result 0 is 1st result on page 1
num maxResults 1 to 100 Number results per page max 100
filter 0 to 1 Filter set to 0, show potential duplicate
restrict restrict code Restrict results to a specific country
as_epq a search phrase Value is submitted as exact phrase, no
need for phrase with quotes e.g.
as_ft i = include file type include or exclude the file type
e= exclude file type as by indicated as_filetype
as_filetype a file extension use above
as_qdr all – all results locate pages within a specified time
m3 = 3 months frame
m6 = 6 months
y = past year
as_nlo low number find numbers between as_nlo and as_nhi
as_nhi high number find numbers between as_nlo and as_nhi
as_oq a list of words find at least one of these words
as_occt any = anywhere find a search term in a specific location
title = tile of page
body = text of page
url = in URL of page
links = in links to the page
as_dt i = only include site/domain include or exclude searches from
e = exclude site/domain domain specified by as_sitesearch
as_sitesearch domain or site include or exclude this domain or
site as specified by as_dt
as_rq URL locate pages similar to this URL
as_lq URL locate pages that link to this URL